what are the causes of soil degradation

Most agricultural practices involving the use of fertilizers and pesticides often entail misuse or excessive application, thereby contributing to the killing of soil’s beneficial bacteria and other micro-organisms that help in soil formation. Effects of Tillage Erosion 8. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? The latest data revealed that erosion has rendered 200 million hectares or 36% of the total area of the country barren (Table 27.1). Soils become water-logged when the water balance of an area is disturbed because of excess recharge. In the past 150 years half the topsoil on the planet has been lost. Out of 100 per cent potentially active lands only 44 per cent are available for cultivation and 56 per cent of land are non-available for cultivation. 6. Many people do conceive the idea of soil degradation but a good number lacks the knowledge of its precise definition. Avoiding soil degradation is crucial to our well-being. With the reduction of deforestation, soil’s ability to naturally regenerate can be restored. Soil erosion is the major cause of soil degradation. In addition to erosion, soil quality is affected by other aspects of agriculture. These are very real and at times severe issues. Soil quality decline is one of the main causes of land degradation and is considered to be responsible for 84% of the ever-diminishing acreage. Marginal lands though sustainable for farming are less fertile and more prone to degradation. Privacy Policy3. It is estimated that nearly 2 billion ha of soil resources in the world have been degraded, namely approximately 22% of the total cropland, pasture, forest, and woodland. A major part of soil depletion is due to the lands over-use and the products that we pour on it. Share Your PDF File Salinity directly affects the productivity by making the soil unsuitable for crop growth. There are several physical factors contributing to soil degradation distinguished by the manners in which they change the natural composition and structure of the soil. Founded Conserve Energy Future with the sole motto of providing helpful information related to our rapidly depleting environment. (And Are They Reusable), Are Light Bulbs Recyclable? The data published by National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (Sehgal and Abrol, 1994) show that about 3.7 million ha land suffers from nutrient loss or depletion of organic matter. are conditions cause water logging. One of the topics studied in GCSE Geography is soil erosion and degradation. Soil erosion is a consequence of unsustainable land use and other disturbances, such as fire, mining, or intensive agricultural uses. When trees are removed by logging, infiltration rates become elevated and the soil remains bare and exposed to erosion and the buildup of toxicities. Examples of marginal lands are steep sloppy lands, shallow or sandy soils and the lands in dry and semi-dry areas. loss of fertile top soil due to water or wind erosion. Deforestation: Forests play an important role in maintaining fertility of soil by shedding their leaves … Causes of Soil Degradation Unsustainable Land management Practices i. Deforestation. Replace goodness. A true environmentalist by heart ❤️. For this reason, the transformed land is unable to soak up water, making flooding more frequent. Extension of cultivation to marginal land: Due to tremendous population increase the use of land is increasing day by day. Name the types of nitrogenous bases present in the RNA. The nodulation and growth of some leguminous crops and nitrogen fixation are inhibited by different pesticides. To fill this knowledge gap, soil degradation simply means the decline in soil quality which comes about due to aspects such as improper land use, agriculture, and pasture, urban or industrial purposes. Expansion of canal irrigation is also directly concerned with widespread water-logging and salinity problems in arid and semiarid areas. Impacts of Soil Degradation The effect of soil degradation is not detected as serious global problem up to 2020. Resources Soil erosion is a naturally occurring process that affects all landforms. Table 27.6 presents the area under different types of soil degradation in different years: The factors which affect soil micro flora and fauna also reduce the biological or microbial activity of soil adversely. Desertification. Drought and aridity are problems highly influenced and amplified by soil degradation. Soil erosion can either be caused by natural forces like wind or water or can be caused by human behavior like deforestation or the building of dams. As populations grow, individuals can be sensitized and educated regarding sustainable forest management and reforestation efforts. Overgrazing, cutting of timber trees, collection of fuel wood, shifting cultivation and encroachment of forest areas are some of the important factors responsible for the loss of vegetation cover on the soil which ultimately causes soil erosion. Soil fertility is reduced due to prolonged intensive cultivation. It is viewed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. The decline in soil quality as a result of agricultural chemical fertilizers also further leads to water and land pollution thereby lowering the land’s worth on earth. The rates of soil erosion and the loss of soil nutrients, as well as the topsoil, are highly contributed by overgrazing. The farmers maintain productivity of soil by applying chemical fertilizers but make less use of organic manures. In extreme cases, soil becomes unfit for cultivation. Land reclamation encompasses activities centered towards restoring the previous organic matter and soil’s vital minerals. Destruction of natural vegetation cover is a major factor responsible for erosion of soils by water and wind. Due to shortage of land, increase of population and economic pressure, the farmers have adopted intensive cropping patterns of commercial crops in place of more balanced cereal-legume rotations. Soil erosion decreases soil fertility, which can negatively affect crop yields. Organic matter is rapidly decomposed and leached or eroded by heavy rains. (And 3 Ways to Dispose of). Physical factors, e.g. This is a global problem. In India pasture land area is decreasing day by day due to expansion of agricultural land. Most of the crops in India are affected due to salinity. It occurs whenever the natural balances in the landscape are changed by human activity through misuse or overuse of soil. Soil degradation, defined as lowering and losing of soil functions, is becoming more and more serious worldwide in recent decades, and poses a threat to agricultural production and terrestrial ecosystem. Answer Now and help others. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. According to an estimate, about 0.8 million ha soil is degraded due to mining activity. These protect the soil while returning nutrients and plant matter too. The outcomes of soil erosion and quality decline are widely irreversible. According to a Pereira and Muñoz-Rojas (2017) synthesis, soil erosion is one of the major causes, evidence of, and key variables used to assess and understand land degradation. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. It also contributes to the displacement of populations and the multiplication of conflicts. Because soil degradation contributes to land degradation, it also means that it creates a significant loss of arable land. The slope of the land. Thus soil becomes deficient in essential minerals and this results in productivity loss. Consequently, actions such as reducing irrigation, planting salt-tolerant crops, and improving irrigation efficiency will have high payoffs because the inputs and the labor-demanding aspects associated with reclamation projects are zero. loss of fertile top soil due to water or wind erosion. Soil and land degradation are interrelated issues and often come up in the same context. The costs of preventing salinization are incredibly cheaper than the reclamation projects in salinized areas. It affects global climate through alterations in water cycle and energy balances and disruptions of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur cycles. The following are the impacts of soil degradation: 1. 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